The Okean series of satellites were all-weather radar oceanographic systems primarily designed to monitor sea-ice conditions in the Arctic seas. The payload included a side-looking radar, a scanning microwave radiometer, a nadir-viewing microwave spectrometer, optical scanners and a data collection platform. The spacecraft was a stepped cylindrical pressurized bus 3 m high and 1.4 m diameter. It was 3-axis stabilized (nadir pointing, aided by a gravity gradient boom), had twin solar array spanning 4.82 m and an 11.8 m radar antenna mounted on the Earth-facing base. A primary feature of the Okean-series was direct Automatic Picture Transmission (APT) on 137.4 MHz of imagery to CIS APT stations as well as to foreign users. The on-board recorder had 6.5 minute capacity and permitted coverage and transmission of a 470 x 2750 km image by side-looking radar (SRL) and a 1930 x 2750 km image by the multispectral scanner during a pass over an APT station. The SRL operated at 3.2 cm with a swath width of 450 km and ground resolution of 1200 x 1500 meters. The MSU-M visible/near-IR multispectral scanner operated at 0.5 - 0.6, 0.6 - 0.7, 0.7 - 0.8, and 0.8 - 1.1 microns with a swath width of 1900 km and ground resolution of 1900 meters. The MSU-S visible/near-IR scanner operated at 0.6 - 0.7 and 0.8 - 1.1 microns with a swath width of 1100 km and a ground resolution of 370 m. The MSU-SK operated at 0.8 - 1.1 microns with a swath width of 1150 km and ground resolution of 500 m. The non-scanning microwave instrument operated at a frequency of 3 cm with a ground resolution of 12 m along orbit and 6 m perpendicular to the orbit track. The Okean payload was flown on Cosmos 1500, Cosmos 1602, Cosmos 1766, and Cosmos 1869 (radar failed), as well as Okean-1 and Okean-2. See Karpov, A., "Hydrometeorological, Oceanographic and Earth-Resources Satellite Systems Operated by the U.S.S.R.", Adv. Space Res., Vol. 11, No. 3, pp. 183-190, 1991.
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